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Canada Goose online In this May 14 photo, supporters of Shiite cleric Muqtada al Sadr carry his image as they celebrate in Baghdad’s Tahrir Square. (Hadi Mizban/Associated Press) Canada Goose online

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canada goose clearance The Sadrists and the communists: An unlikely alliance It might be tempting to regard the Sadrist communist alliance as a natural alignment of two movements that share social and ideological roots. Sadr’s social base is strongest in former communist strongholds in Baghdad and the south. Ideologically, there has canada goose jacket uk been considerable leftist influence on Iraq’s modern Shiite Islamist movements. canada goose clearance

canada goose deals However, these factors do not explain why this alignment canada goose outlet store new york did not appear until 2015, or why canada goose sale uk nobody had predicted its emergence. In fact, competition over canada goose outlet real shared social and ideological terrain often official canada goose outlet intensifies political struggles, canada goose outlet mall as in the fierce clash between Shiite Islamist and leftist forces following Iraq’s 1958 revolution. canada goose deals

canada goose Moreover, in canada goose jacket outlet uk contrast to these earlier Islamist groups, the Sadrists were, from their inception in the 1990s, nonideological with no clear vision of an Islamic state, constitution or economy. Rather, it was a messianic movement defined by its popular religiosity, ritual bound Shiite identity and conservative cultural puritanism. It would be misleading to overstate any concrete Marxist ideological influences on the group. canada goose

cheap Canada Goose Consequently, the Sadrists were contemned and discounted by Iraq’s liberal elite who form the core of the ICP. invasion, the Sadrists canada goose premium outlet were also at war with https://www.canadagoosesale.info the returning exiled leadership and anyone who ”collaborated” with the occupying forces. More broadly, leftists and liberals were targeted by Islamist militias, among whom the Sadrist Mahdi Army was the most powerful, at least pre 2008. cheap Canada Goose

Canada Goose Outlet The Sadrist leftist alliance was not a natural alignment of two groups primed for cooperation. It was only able to overcome its considerable barriers canada goose outlet toronto location by forging new social ties between previously isolated social strata and developing innovative ideas and narratives to justify their political partnership. Canada Goose Outlet

canada goose store Lessons from the canada goose outlet near me Arab Spring Iraqi politics is often construed as the politics of elites who strike deals among themselves to divide the spoils of power. The flip side of this coin is a supposed societal weakness in which non elites are unable to mobilize against the political class. This weakness resides in both the fragmentation of Iraqi society into isolated enclaves divided by sect, ethnicity and region, as well as the dependency of canada goose outlet new york these enclaves on political elites who control access to services and jobs. canada goose store

buy canada goose jacket cheap A similar notion of societal weakness dominated studies of Egyptian politics before the 2011 revolution. Many thought the various social groups opposing the Mubarak regime were too fragmented to mobilize collectively against the state. The 2011 revolution, which saw an unprecedented degree of cooperation between the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, secular liberals canada goose outlet houston and the trade union movement, shattered this understanding and led social scientists to revise their theories. buy canada goose jacket cheap

canada goose This revived an interest in bottom up politics, social movements and the complex strategies by which civil society resists political domination. This new attention to societal dynamics helped replace the notion of Egypt’s societal weakness with a more nuanced understanding of its canada goose outlet edmonton latent potential for broad mobilization. Scholarship now recognized canada goose outlet canada that nonelite actors, often on the periphery of social groups, Canada Goose Outlet had the capacity, when called upon, to act as bridges between otherwise isolated social domains, facilitating collective action against the state. canada goose

canada goose deals The deeper societal roots of the Sadrist leftist alliance By contrast, the persistent centrality of elite politics and sectarianism continues to obscure the canada goose stockists uk political significance of similar societal dynamics in Iraq. In 2015, when I began researching Sadrist leftist canada goose outlet store uk cooperation, I was struck by the degree of social and cultural interaction between less senior figures and outside formal institutional or party structures. canada goose deals

canada goose deals The sorts of conversations taking place were not merely pragmatic and strategic discussions among the leadership. They drew a diverse range of actors into cultural canada goose outlet los angeles dialogues about philosophy, history and the role of religion in politics. Participants told me how these interactions shifted their negative cultural stereotypes of the other side. canada goose deals

canada goose coats I also canada goose outlet kokemuksia found that the origins of these interactions went back further than most realized. As early as 2010, Sadr had established new cultural institutions that sought to connect Sadrists with Iraq’s secular cultural elites. Sadr recruited the well respected academic Saeb Abd al Hamid to take charge of one such institution. Some of Abd al Hamid’s cultural projects proved controversial with the Sadrists, such canada goose outlet in canada as the participation of unveiled women in theater productions. canada goose coats

canada goose While these early efforts faltered under the pressure of internal Sadrist resistance, several of the key intellectuals who later supported the Sadrist leftist alliance had participated in these nascent shared cultural spaces. For example, the leftist academic Faris canada goose outlet official Kamal Nadhmi regularly attended lectures and seminars there. canada goose

Canada Goose Outlet Influenced by those experiences, Nadhmi formulated and published radical new ideas about a potential convergence between the Sadrists and secular leftist forces. Later, Sadrist political leaders such as Dhia al Asadi, and canada goose womens outlet senior canada goose outlet niagara falls communists such as Jassim al Hefli alike would use Nadhmi’s work to justify their political cooperation. Canada Goose Outlet

buy canada goose jacket cheap Failure to predict the emergence of the leftist Islamist alliance that won Iraq’s May elections resulted from a focus on elite politics and sectarian dynamics that obscured these underlying cross ideological interactions occurring at the societal level. As in Egypt, an image of Iraq’s societal weakness meant that most analyses missed its potential for broader mobilization. Applying the lessons of the Arab Spring canada goose factory outlet toronto location to Iraq could help illuminate not only surprising election results but also the complex and innovative strategies of Iraqi civil society that have so far remained hidden from view buy canada goose jacket cheap.